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Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different periods or ephos in time line. Convergent evolution creates analogous structures that have similar form or function but Bird, bat, and pterosaur wings are analogous structures, but their forelimbs .. Trends in Ecology & Evolution.

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As the day goes on, there are many aha moments in the room. A first selfie. The first time texting a photo. By the end, participants are ready to go online and try things. As Coler noted, boomers are also big consumers of content from hyperpartisan political Facebook pages , which drive huge engagement on the platform by stoking partisan passion via memes and articles.


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Nicole Hickman James spent years working for a publisher that ran both liberal and conservative hyperpartisan Facebook pages and associated websites. She says over time she tailored her articles to older readers because they were the most engaged audience. James said a lot of the people who regularly commented on her stories on Facebook or reached out to her were older.

Older, very partisan, etc. Turning Point USA, a non-profit conservative group focused on college students, was until very recently receiving the vast majority of engagement for its ads from older people on Facebook. Turning Point did not respond to a request for comment, but it seems the organization initially used criteria other than age to target its ads — and boomers just happened to be the most receptive demographic.

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The versions viewed by BuzzFeed News in the Facebook ad archive primarily reached people older than 55, with those over 65 being the largest portion of audience. That means his ads naturally appealed to older Facebook users. Facebook declined to comment for this story. Manlove has liked more than 1, Facebook pages, many of which are hyperpartisan conservative or religious. She recognized that her Facebook usage has become unhealthy in some ways.

I have lost hours on Facebook that I should have been doing other things. At least three of the pages she liked were run by the Russian trolls at the Internet Research Agency, and at least one is a fake conservative page run by a self-described liberal troll who targets conservatives with false stories and memes. That sense of frustration mixed with love and a tinge of guilt is familiar to many people.

Quotes to Make You Feel Better About Getting Older

These sentiments are likely a byproduct of the fact that our current chaotic information environment is creating a historic gulf in the media habits between generations. People 25 and younger are heavy users of platforms such as Snapchat and Instagram and barely watch any traditional TV. Older Americans are more likely to use Facebook and watch traditional TV.

People of all ages in the US are on Facebook, but younger people use it far less, and often cite the fact that their parents and grandparents are there as a reason to stay away. Feelings of isolation and loneliness are important factors in the online behavior of older people. The work here is a good example of starting with a known cause of aging and working forwards, a much more efficient approach, and one that must become more widespread in the research community if we are to see meaningful progress in treatments for age-related conditions in the years ahead.

Cellular senescence is associated with age-related blood clots. Cells that become senescent irrevocably stop dividing under stress, spewing out a mix of inflammatory proteins that lead to chronic inflammation as more and more of the cells accumulate over time. Researchers have identified 44 specific senescence-associated proteins that are involved in blood clotting, marking the first time that cellular senescence has been associated with age-related blood clots.

Over time it becomes a major risk factor for death. By 80, the condition affects five to six people per thousand individuals. Blood clots are also a serious side effect of chemotherapy , which sets off a cascade of senescence in those undergoing treatment. That's why blood thinners, which carry their own risks, are often included in treatment protocols. In this study, researchers validated the expression of some of the specific factors in cultured cells and in mice, which were treated with doxorubicin , a widely-used chemotherapy drug which induces widespread senescence.

Those mice showed increased blood clotting, similar to what happens in humans who undergo chemotherapy. Cellular senescence irreversibly arrests cell proliferation , accompanied by a multi-component senescence-associated secretory phenotype SASP that participates in several age-related diseases. Using stable isotope labeling with amino acids SILACs and cultured cells, we identify SASP proteins that senescent human fibroblasts secrete at 2-fold or higher levels compared with quiescent cell counterparts.

Bioinformatic analysis reveals that 44 of these proteins participate in hemostasis , a process not previously linked with cellular senescence. We validated the expression of some of these SASP factors in cultured cells and in vivo. Mice treated with the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin, which induces widespread cellular senescence in vivo, show increased blood clotting.

Conversely, selective removal of senescent cells using transgenic pMR mice showed that clearing senescent cells attenuates the increased clotting caused by doxorubicin. Our study provides an in-depth, unbiased analysis of the SASP and unveils a function for cellular senescence in hemostasis.

Alongside Juvenescence , Life Biosciences is one of the first large investment concerns wholly dedicated to the growing longevity industry. The Life Biosciences principals take the approach of providing the extensive supporting infrastructure needed to wrap a company around a senior scientist in the field of aging research, and then guide their work towards commercialization. Most scientists have very little interest in founding a company, and in any case lack the skills needed to do so.

This approach of providing an environment that operates in much the same way as academia from the perspective of the researcher, in which the business side of things is handled, is a good way to accelerate progress in a field that presently lacks a sufficiently large population of entrepreneurs for companies to emerge naturally at a good pace. How far along is longevity in becoming a defined category for investors?

Put it on a scale of for us.

5 Simple Exercises to Test the Age of Your Body

If fintech has developed to a nine or a ten, where would you score longevity? From an investment perspective I would say it's a one or a two. But I believe that will change very quickly. I think the scale will go from a two to an eight in the next four to five years.

What An Aging Population Means For The Future Of The Internet

Like the Internet of Things , or Artificial Intelligence before it, in the next few years I can't imagine a single person on the planet not being aware of the ability to extend lifespan and healthspan, both as an industry and as a benefit to humankind. In , the Wright brothers defied expectation and took their first flight. We have the photo of this on our office wall, to remind us of who we are. The idea of humans being able to fly back then was crazy; most people were saying it couldn't be done.

Yet after they left the earth's gravity, it didn't take mankind years to accept it. We immediately forgot that it was crazy. All we needed was proof that it could be done, and we never looked back. That's exactly where we are with longevity sciences.


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  4. Longevity research has been evolving as a legitimate science for many years. But I think we are at the cusp of dramatic change. We'll see more and more bright young minds focusing on longevity, and we will soon treat aging.

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    Eventually, we're talking about adding another 20 - 30 years to the average lifespan with none of the diseases of aging: Parkinson's , Alzheimer's , type 2 diabetes , etc. In other words, not only expanding lifespan but what we call "healthspan," the period during which the individual can live a healthy, productive life. Does all this development mean big institutional investors will soon be paying attention? Plenty already are. The science, however, has to build to a point where the rounds are large enough for them to get involved. The rounds must be large enough for the mandates to allow and value checks must be in place in new areas; this can be tough to do.

    As the science progresses, we see the investment interest ramping up, with bigger contributors stepping in. A lot also depends on how quickly some institutions learn to adapt. By "adapt" I mean simply this: There's a long-held understanding that Big Pharma relies on illness for profits. But if they reframe their mission as being in the healthspan business, then the longevity revolution is valuable for them. It's my hope that Pharma embraces this change as a wonderful and necessary way for them to evolve their business in a much more effective way. Environmental and lifestyle choices, as numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated, have considerable influence over health and mortality in late life.

    This open access paper balances lifestyle choices against a range of environmental factors and measures of the progression of aging.

    Supporting the Journey

    The authors find that a healthy lifestyle can only partially offset the effects of having a greater burden of age-related damage and its consequences, or, separately, the impact of low socioeconomic status. The former makes a great deal of sense, given the inevitability of aging as matters currently stand, with even the healthiest succumbing, while the latter is an interesting finding.

    It remains unclear as to the mechanisms linking socioeconomic status to aging: wealth, education, intelligence, stress, access to medical services, and other factors are closely tied and hard to pick apart in the human data. Annual mortality among oldest-old individuals was reduced by somewhere between 0. Impaired cognitive functions were independent predictors of all-cause mortality in very old people.

    Moreover, the risk of mortality is very high for the oldest-old with disabilities. Additionally, socioeconomic inequalities, obesity, cardiovascular factors, and chronic diseases are associated with mortality in the oldest-old. Conversely, healthy lifestyle practices, such as consumption of fruits and vegetables, social participation, and maintaining a normal weight, are associated with lower mortality.

    The question remains as to whether a healthy lifestyle and behavioral factors e. In this large, nationwide cohort study of Chinese oldest-old 80 years of age and older , we found that rural residence, not in marriage, lower economic level, physical disability, impaired cognitive function, and comorbidity are independent risk factors for mortality.

    Using these factors, we computed a weighted "risk score. In joint effect analyses , participants with the combined highest-risk score and lowest-protection score profile had a nearly threefold higher joint death risk. Chronic inflammation is a very important downstream consequence of molecular damage in the progression of aging, arising from numerous causes.